A Test on In-vitro Wear of the Natural Tooth Against 3 Opposing Restorative Materials & 1 Natural Tooth

: Full-contour

• Human tooth enamel

• IPS e.max CAD

• Ceramco III body porcelain

Actual human teeth - molars
Chewing simulator
Wear calculation software

Actual human teeth - molars

Chewing simulator

Wear calculation software

Objectives:

The purpose of this comparative test is to quantitatively identify the degree of wear of human tooth enamel opposing different restorative materials. Specifically, this test was conducted to evaluate clinical validity of full contour zirconia (full-coverage crown) by comparing zirconia’s wear capacity over antagonistic teeth with that of feldspathic dental porcelain and e.max.

A Test on In-vitro Wear of the Natural Tooth Against 3 Opposing Restorative  Materials & 1 Natural Tooth

Upper Side

Case 1: ORIGIN® LIVE™ Zirconia

Case 2: Human Tooth Enamel

Case 3: IPS e.max CAD

Case 4: Ceramco III Porcelain

 

Lower Side – Antagonistic Tooth

Case 1: Human Tooth Enamel

Case 2: Human Tooth Enamel

Case 3: Human Tooth Enamel

Case 4: Human Tooth Enamel

 

Preparation of the Specimens

Lower Side-Human Tooth

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Actual human teeth were first fixed in the dental model stone and then embedded in an acrylic resin mould with only the buccal cusp exposed

Upper Side

Case 1: ORIGIN® LIVE™ Zirconia (according to Instructions for Use Manual)

 

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Case 2: Human Tooth Enamel

 

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Case 3: IPS e.max CAD (according to Instructions for Use Manual)

IPS e.max CAD - Wear Test
IPS e.max CAD - Wear Test
IPS e.max CAD - Wear Test

Surface fine finishing with handpiece

e.Max CAD Glazing paste applied

Heat treatment in porcelain oven

Case 4: Ceramco III Body Porcelain (according to Instructions for Use Manual)

Ceramco III Body Porcelain - Wear Test
Ceramco III Body Porcelain - Wear Test
Ceramco III Body Porcelain - Wear Test

Repeated build up & condensing

Surface fine finishing with handpiece

Heat treatment in porcelain oven

Test Subjects Prepared for Wear Test

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case 1

ORIGIN® LIVE™ Zirconia

Vs

Enamel

Case 2

Enamel

Vs

Enamel

Case 3

e.max CAD

Vs

Enamel

Case 4

Ceramco III Body Porcelain

Vs

Enamel

Wear Test

X 1,250,000 = 5 years of simulated chewing

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Equipment Used

• Chewing Simulator

SD Mechatronik, Dental research Equipment

(Made in Germany)

 

Testing Duration

• 2 weeks

• Total of 1,250,000 times of

simulated chewing

• One simulated chewing cycle

per second

 

Testing Force

• A weight of 5kg, which is

comparable to 49 N of chewing force, was exerted.

SEM Pictures, 3D Image & Surface Scan

1. Upper side – Surface Condition for Opposing Restorative material specimen

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Nova nanoSEM 600, Dept of Physics & Applied Science, Univ. of Utah

2. Lower side – Enamel Wear (Volume & Height)

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Origin Intelligence, 3D Dental Scanner, Accuracy 10 micron, Camera resolution 1.4 mega pixels

Image Comparison

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

3D surfaces were scanned, before and after the wear test, using the ORIGIN Intelligence™ 3D Scanner. Image Comparisons were created with CAD/CAM Inspection Software to calculate the wear loss.

Wear Results

1. Lower side – Enamel Wear (Loss)

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Case 1

ORIGIN® LIVE™ Zirconia (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

0.122 mm

0.088 mm3

Case 2

Enamel (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.112 mm

0.087 mm3

Case 3

e.max CAD (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.168 mm

0.288 mm3

Case 4

Body Porcelain (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.442 mm

0.827 mm3

Height Loss

Volume Loss*

*Software used:

Geomagic

1. Lower side – Enamel Wear (Loss)

Case 1

ORIGIN® LIVE™ Zirconia (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

0.122 mm

0.088 mm3

Case 2

Enamel (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.112 mm

0.087 mm3

Case 3

e.max CAD (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.168 mm

0.288 mm3

Case 4

Body Porcelain (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.442 mm

0.827 mm3

Height Loss

Volume Loss*

*Software used:

Geomagic

2. Upper side – Opposing Specimens (Restorative Materials)

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Case 1

ORIGIN® LIVE™

Zirconia (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

0.002 mm

0.006 mm3

Case 2

Enamel (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.032 mm

0.031 mm3

Case 3

e.max CAD (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.212 mm

0.309 mm3

Case 4

Body Porcelain (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.216 mm

0.677 mm3

Height Loss

Volume Loss*

*Software used:

Geomagic

1. Lower side – Enamel Wear (Loss)

Case 1

ORIGIN® LIVE™ Zirconia (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

0.002 mm

0.006 mm3

Case 2

Enamel (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.032 mm

0.031 mm3

Case 3

e.max CAD (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.212 mm

0.309 mm3

Case 4

Body Porcelain (Upper)

Vs

Enamel (Lower)

 

 

0.216 mm

0.677 mm3

Height Loss

Volume Loss*

*Software used: Geomagic

Conclusion

Upper Side

Restorative material

Lower Side

Antagonistic tooth

ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test
ORIGIN LIVE Plus - Wear Test

Despite the limitations of this study on the evaluation of antagonistic teeth wear, less wear of the antagonistic teeth was shown with polished LIVE zirconia than with the previous dental porcelain or e.max CAD, representing that the LIVE zirconia may be more beneficial in terms of antagonistic tooth wear.